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Shedding Light on Shadows: Unveiling Toxic and Illegal Jewelry Sales Practices

24/11/2023 | Kennon Young

Shedding Light on Shadows: Unveiling Toxic and Illegal Jewelry Sales Practices

Written by Kennon Young, GG, CBJT, ASA-MGA Master Gemologist Appraiser

The glisten of a diamond, the warm glow of gold, the deep allure of a sapphire—fine jewelry has historically been a symbol of status, romance, and timeless beauty. It's an industry built on the allure of precious metals and stones, promising to add a touch of luxury to everyday life. However, lurking beneath the sparkle lies a less glamorous reality—a realm where the shine can sometimes be tarnished by unethical sales practices.

The difference between toxic and illegal practices in jewelry sales is subtle yet significant. Toxic practices may not break the law but can include underhanded tactics such as high-pressure sales environments, where customers are pushed towards purchases they may not need or want. On the other hand, illegal practices are those that contravene established laws, such as fraudulent misrepresentation or false advertising, and these are governed by regulations like those established by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

This article aims to cast a light on these deceptive practices, arming consumers with the knowledge to navigate the highly subjective task of purchasing gems and jewelry. From the glinting lies of bait-and-switch tactics to the false promises of counterfeit luxury, we will explore how to spot and avoid these pitfalls. In educating ourselves about these toxic and illegal tactics, we not only protect our investments and personal experiences but we also support the integrity of the jewelry industry at large.

Understanding Toxic and Illegal Practices

In the radiant world of jewelry, where every piece tells a story and carries a promise of beauty, the distinction between toxic and illegal sales practices is crucial for consumer protection. Toxic practices, while not outright illegal, reduce the shopping experience to a distasteful chore. They are the manipulative sales strategies that pressure buyers, the misrepresented discounts that appear too good to be true, and the over-promised and under-delivered services that leave customers dissatisfied.

Illegal practices, however, cross the line into the realm of the law. Governed by state or federal regulations, these practices are prosecutable offenses that cause damage to consumers. They include false advertising, bait-and-switch schemes, and the intentional misrepresentation of a product’s quality or origin. Such practices are not only unethical but also punishable by law, with organizations like the FTC setting clear guidelines to protect consumers and maintain fair trade.

The FTC plays a pivotal role in this landscape, acting as a guardian of fair practices. Its guidelines serve as a beacon, guiding both businesses and consumers toward a marketplace where transparency and honesty are the norm, not the exception. By being aware of these guidelines, consumers can shield themselves from the glittering lures of unethical salesmanship and make informed decisions that reflect their best interests.


The Bait and Switch Tactic

Bait and Switch Toxic Sales Tactic

The bait and switch tactic has become rampant in the last decade mostly due to the prevalence of internet sales. Its a deceptive marketing ploy that lures customers with the promise of an item that, in reality, is not available for sale or does not exist as advertised. In the jewelry context, this could mean showcasing a high-quality, beautifully cut gemstone at an attractive price, but when customers express their interest, they are steered towards purchasing a lower-quality piece at a similar or even higher price point.

Understanding the Bait and Switch Tactic

At its core, the bait and switch tactic is a breach of trust and a misrepresentation of products. Jewelers who practice this lure customers under false pretenses. They may advertise a jewelry piece with exceptional qualities, such as an exquisite sapphire with deep, vibrant color and exceptional clarity, to capture the attention of potential buyers. However, upon a customer's visit or inquiry, it is revealed that the specific item was either 'just sold' or was a 'limited-time offer' that has expired. The customer, already emotionally invested and possibly having traveled a significant distance, is then presented with alternatives that are typically of lesser quality or higher price than the bait product.

The Psychological Impact

This tactic preys on the psychological commitment of the consumer. Having decided to make a significant purchase, they are often more susceptible to suggestions. The switch is where the real manipulation occurs, as sales personnel apply pressure, using tactics such as false scarcity or time-limited offers to urge the consumer to make a decision on the spot.

Consumer Defense Strategies

To defend against bait and switch tactics, consumers must be vigilant. It is advisable to conduct thorough research before visiting a store, including reading customer reviews and checking business ratings. Shoppers should also request to see the advertised item as soon as they enter the store and be wary of any attempts to divert their attention to other products.


Misrepresentation of Manufacture 

Misrepresentation of Jewelry Manufacturing Illegal Practice

Misrepresentation of manufacture in the jewelry industry involves making false or misleading claims about the way a piece of jewelry is made. This can range from the fabrication processes to the hands-on crafting by artisans. The FTC's Jewelry Guides are explicit in stipulating that any description or representation of a product, including assertions about a piece's creation, must be accurate and substantiated.

Craftsmanship Claims and the FTC’s Stance

Possibly the most abused terms with jewelry manufacturing techniques is the term "handmade". In jewelry, this term implies that items are constructed and shaped by hand, which often justifies a higher price point due to the labor-intensive nature of the work. Under FTC guidelines, it is deceptive to mark or describe a product as made by hand when machinery has played a significant role in its production. According to the FTC's Jewelry Guides, specifically section 23.3, "It is unfair or deceptive to represent, directly or by implication, that any industry product is handmade or hand-wrought unless the entire shaping and forming of such product from raw materials and its finishing and decoration were accomplished by hand labor and manually-controlled methods which permit the maker to control and vary the construction, shape, design, and finish of each part of each individual product."

With this definition, jewelry cannot be described as handmade if it has been cast, milled, machined, elecroformed, 3d printed, laser formed/sintered, or any other technique that uses machinery. 

When a manufacturer or retailer misrepresents machine-made jewelry as handmade, they not only deceive the consumer but also unfairly compete with genuine artisans who invest significant time and skill into creating their wares.


Consumer's Right to Accurate Information

Consumers have the right to accurate information about the products they are purchasing. Misrepresentation of manufacture exploits the consumer's trust and their willingness to pay for what they believe to be a product of personal craftsmanship. To combat this, consumers are encouraged to ask sellers for details about the manufacturing process, seek certifications or proof of the artisanal nature of the jewelry, and verify the reputation of the seller or the brand.


Misrepresentation by Geographic Origin

Misrepresentation of the Geographical Origin of Gemstones

Misrepresentation of geographic origin in the jewelry industry can significantly mislead consumers about the value and authenticity of a piece. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has set forth guidelines in the Jewelry Guides that explicitly address the misrepresentation of geographic origin and its impact on consumer perception and value assessment.

The Importance of Geographic Origin

The origin of a gemstone can be a key factor in its value. Gemstones like Kashmir sapphires, Colombian emeralds, and Burmese Ruby are renowned for their quality and rarity, commanding premium prices in the market. The FTC acknowledges this in Section 23.3 of the Jewelry Guides, which states, "It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent the geographic origin of a gemstone."

Case Study: Misrepresentation of an Opal's Origin

Take, for example, the case of an opal being sold as a "Lightning Ridge Opal" when it does not hail from the famed Lightning Ridge region known for the finest black opals. This misrepresentation does not just inflate the stone's value falsely but also has wider implications, potentially affecting the market and the livelihood of miners and sellers in the genuine region of origin.

Protecting Consumers and the Integrity of Gemstone Markets

Consumers have a right to know the true origin of the gemstones they are purchasing. Misleading claims about geographic origin undermine the trust between buyers and sellers and can distort the market, harming the regions known for producing particular gemstones. The FTC encourages consumers to report such deceptive practices to help maintain integrity in the jewelry market.

Consumers are advised to request documentation proving a gemstone's origin, such as certificates of authenticity from institutions such at the Gemological Institute of America, and to purchase from trusted sellers who adhere to ethical practices such as American Gem Society stores.


Misrepresentation by Terminology

misrepresenting Gemstones by Incorrect Terminology

Terminology in the jewelry industry is not just about semantics—it's about the inherent value, the identity of a gemstone, and the trust between seller and buyer. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recognizes the weight that terminology carries and, as such, has clear guidelines to prevent misrepresentation. Per the FTC's Jewelry Guides, particularly Section 23.23, it is deceptive to misuse terms that describe a gemstone's color, quality, type, or composition.

The Critical Nature of Correct Terminology

The terminology used to describe jewelry must be precise. For example, the distinction between a ruby and what is scientifically the same stone, a red sapphire, is not pedantic but rather rooted in centuries of gemological tradition and consumer expectations. Rubies are red corundum, while sapphires are typically blue. Any other color of corundum is termed 'sapphire' coupled with a color descriptor, except for red, which has been historically and commercially recognized as ruby. This distinction is critical because the marketplace values rubies differently from sapphires due to their rarity and cultural significance.

The FTC's Stance on Gemstone Nomenclature

The FTC is explicit in its guidance to prevent confusion and ensure that consumers are not misled by the use of incorrect or deceptive terminology. Section 23.23 of the FTC’s Jewelry Guides provides that it is unfair or deceptive to mark or describe a product with an incorrect varietal name. For instance, labeling a red corundum stone as a "red sapphire" is potentially misleading because it could imply a different value or rarity than what is traditionally understood as a ruby.

Ensuring Transparency and Consumer Education

To combat the misuse of terminology, consumers must be educated about the proper names and attributes of gemstones. They should feel empowered to ask jewelers for detailed information about a gemstone's characteristics and to request documentation or certification that verifies a stone's identity.

The Role of Certification and Expertise

Reputable jewelers often provide gemological certificates from established laboratories that confirm the group and species of the gemstone. Such certifications typically include the stone's nomenclature, which should match the terminology used in the sale or advertising of the jewelry. Consumers should seek out these certifications as part of the purchasing process and be wary of expensive stones that do not come with certification. 


Falsified Discounts: The Illusion of a Deal

Falsified Discounts in the Jewelry Industry

The enticement of saving money on a purchase can be a powerful motivator for consumers, particularly in the market for fine jewelry where items often come with a high price tag. However, when discounts are falsified, the deal is nothing more than an illusion. This toxic sales tactic involves the practice of inflating the original price of an item only to offer a seemingly substantial discount, which, in reality, may simply bring the price down to the item's actual value or sometimes still above it.

Understanding Falsified Discounts

At its core, the practice of offering falsified discounts involves presenting consumers with a false original price — often significantly higher than the true market value — to create a perceived greater value for the sale price. For example, a ring might be marked with an original price of $1,400, struck through to show a "discounted" price of $1,000, with an additional 40% off, implying an urgent bargain for a piece that may have never been intended to sell at the original higher price.

The Psychology Behind the Discount

The psychological impact of this tactic on consumers is significant. It leverages the consumer's desire to feel like they are getting a 'good deal' and can often rush them into a purchase decision out of fear of missing out on the limited-time offer. The urgency is further heightened by phrases like "Today Only!" or "While Supplies Last!" which are often attached to these deals.

FTC Guidelines and Legal Implications

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has guidelines that address deceptive pricing, including falsified discounts. According to the FTC, if a seller offers an item on sale, the original price should be the actual, bona fide price at which the item was offered to the public on a regular basis for a reasonably substantial period of time. If not, it could be considered a deceptive practice. The FTC's stance is that consumers have the right to truthful information about the prices they pay.

The Impact of Falsified Discounts

The implications of falsified discounts extend beyond individual purchases. They can erode consumer trust not only in the offending retailer but across the entire industry. This erosion of trust can have a ripple effect, leading to increased skepticism even towards genuine discounts and honest sellers.

Strategies for Consumers

To avoid falling victim to falsified discounts, consumers should research the average prices for the type of jewelry they are interested in. Many websites will offer past sold prices, such as or With this data, consumers can determine what people have paid in the past so that they can understand an item's fair market value.

Consumers should be wary of discounts that seem too good to be true or that are presented with high-pressure sales tactics. It's also a good practice to compare prices across different retailers and to be cautious of perpetual sales that suggest items are always available at a discount, as this can be a red flag for price inflation.


Falsified discounts in the jewelry industry are a classic example of a toxic sales tactic that preys on the consumer's desire for a good deal. Awareness and education are key to combating this tactic. The FTC continues to enforce regulations against deceptive pricing practices, but it is ultimately the informed consumer who can best protect themselves from falling for the illusion of a false deal. By understanding the true value of the items they wish to purchase and being equipped with the knowledge of common deceptive practices, consumers can make more informed decisions and feel confident in their jewelry investments.


Appraisal Malpractices in the Jewelry Industry

Appraising by Charging a Contingent of the Appraised Value

In the world of fine jewelry, appraisals are essential for determining the value and identity of items for insurance, resale, estate purposes, and more. However, certain practices in appraising jewelry can be unethical, misleading, and even illegal. These include appraising for a contingent of the appraised value, appraising with bias, and misrepresenting one's qualifications as an appraiser.

Contingent Appraisal Fees

One particularly deceptive practice is charging appraisal fees based on a percentage of the item's appraised value. This is problematic because it creates an inherent conflict of interest. Appraisers might be tempted to inflate the value to earn a higher fee, misleading the customer about the true worth of their jewelry. For example, an appraiser stating, "I'll charge you 5% of what I appraise it for!" suggests that their compensation is directly tied to the item's determined value, which can skew the appraisal's objectivity. According to the Federal Trade Commission and professional appraiser organizations, such contingent appraisal fees are illegal.

Appraising with Bias

Appraisals must be objective assessments of an item's value. Appraising with bias — whether due to a personal relationship with the client, a desire for future business, or any other reason — is not just unethical but also diminishes the appraisal's credibility. Examples include valuing an item that the appraiser is hoping to purchase or appraising an item that the appraiser sold. Biased appraisals can lead consumers to believe their items are worth more or less than their true market value, impacting insurance premiums, tax deductions, and resale prices.

Qualified Appraisers

The IRS has clear definitions for what constitutes a qualified appraiser in the context of charitable donations for tax purposes. According to Section 170(f)(11)(E)(ii) and (iii) of the Internal Revenue Code, a qualified appraiser must:

  1. Have earned an appraisal designation from a recognized professional appraiser organization or meet the minimum education and experience requirements.
  2. Regularly perform appraisals for compensation.
  3. Not have been prohibited from practicing before the IRS at any time during the three years preceding the appraisal.

Moreover, a qualified appraiser must have verifiable education and experience in valuing the type of property being appraised. This ensures that appraisals are conducted by individuals with the necessary expertise and ethical standards.

Protecting Yourself from Appraisal Malpractices

Consumers should seek appraisers who charge a flat fee or hourly rate rather than a percentage of the appraised value. It is also essential to verify the appraiser's credentials and ensure they have no vested interest in the item's valuation outcome. Reputable appraisers adhere to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) and are accredited by professional bodies such as the American Society of Appraisers (ASA) or the National Association of Jewelry Appraisers (NAJA).


The Role of the Federal Trade Commission 

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) serves as the guardian of consumer rights in the United States, particularly within the marketplace. The FTC's role in the jewelry industry is to enforce laws that prevent deceptive, fraudulent, and unfair business practices. It establishes clear guidelines that help maintain the integrity of the industry and provide a framework within which honest businesses can operate confidently.

Under the FTC's guidelines, all representations about jewelry, including claims about a product's composition, treatment, origin, and other qualities, must be accurate and not misleading. These regulations cover everything from the way diamonds are graded to the correct terminology for gemstones and the disclosure of treatments that could affect a gem's value.

For instance, the FTC's Jewelry Guides specify that it is illegal to misrepresent a gemstone's type or quality. This includes the clarity-enhancing treatments in diamonds or the heat treatment in colored stones, which must be disclosed to the consumer. The FTC also oversees claims about the country of origin for gemstones and precious metals, ensuring that consumers are not misled about the true source of their jewelry.

When businesses fail to adhere to these guidelines, the FTC has the authority to take action, which can include investigations, sanctions, and fines. By penalizing deceptive practices, the FTC not only protects consumers but also supports fair competition within the industry.

Consumers who suspect they've been victims of fraudulent jewelry sales practices can file a complaint with the FTC. The FTC's website provides resources for understanding rights and reporting wrongdoing, making it an invaluable tool for consumer education and protection.



In the glittering world of gemstones and jewelry, the sparkle can sometimes be dimmed by the shadow of toxic and illegal sales practices. This article has illuminated some of the common tactics used by unscrupulous sellers to deceive consumers. From the bait and switch to misrepresentation by manufacture, geographic origin, and terminology, we've seen how these practices not only harm consumers but also erode trust in the jewelry industry.

Being aware of these tactics and understanding the protective role of the Federal Trade Commission are essential steps in becoming an empowered consumer. Armed with this knowledge, you can confidently navigate the marketplace, discern true value, and appreciate the genuine craftsmanship that goes into creating fine jewelry.

Remember, your choices as a consumer have power. By demanding transparency, asking the right questions, and insisting on ethical practices, you contribute to a more honest and fair jewelry industry. Let's cherish the true beauty of jewelry by supporting those who craft and sell it with integrity.



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